Since water resources are critical for human survival, even short-term disruptions in the supply of water can have potentially devastating consequences, including adverse impacts on financial security systems. The main purpose of this paper is to start a discussion on water resource risk among actuaries before addressing the broader scientific and public policy communities. We believe that actuaries need to be informed about how water resource risks affect a wide range of perils commonly insured, including life, health, property and agriculture. The paper illustrates the central risks by considering three representative systems in New York City, Mexico City and India. It goes on to illustrate best-practice actuarial risk management techniques, applied in a context outside the traditional actuarial domain. The paper employs what we believe to be best-practice actuarial risk management techniques, applied in a context outside the traditional actuarial domain. It may therefore serve as a useful educational tool, and a showcase for the profession’s risk management capabilities.